## Transcript

Special Topic: Thermal Insulation
7-73C Thermal insulation is a material that is used primarily to provide
resistance to heat flow. It differs from other kinds of insulators in that
the purpose of an electrical insulator is to halt the flow of electric
current, and the purpose of a sound insulator is to slow down the
propagation of sound waves.
7-74C In cold surfaces such as chilled water lines, refrigerated trucks,
and air conditioning ducts, insulation saves energy since the source of
"coldness" is refrigeration that requires energy input. In this case heat
is transferred from the surroundings to the cold surfaces, and the
refrigeration unit must now work harder and longer to make up for this heat
gain and thus it must consume more electrical energy.
7-75C The R-value of insulation is the thermal resistance of the insulating
material per unit surface area. For flat insulation the R-value is obtained
by simply dividing the thickness of the insulation by its thermal
conductivity. That is, R-value = L/k. Doubling the thickness L doubles the
R-value of flat insulation.
7-76C The R-value of an insulation represents the thermal resistance of
insulation per unit surface area (or per unit length in the case of pipe
insulation).
7-77C Superinsulations are obtained by using layers of highly reflective
sheets separated by glass fibers in an evacuated space. Radiation between
two surfaces is inversely proportional to the number of sheets used and
thus heat loss by radiation will be very low by using this highly
reflective sheets. Evacuating the space between the layers forms a vacuum
which minimize conduction or convection through the air space.
7-78C Yes, hair or any other cover reduces heat loss from the head, and
thus serves as insulation for the head. The insulating ability of hair or
feathers is most visible in birds and hairy animals.
7-79C The primary reasons for insulating are energy conservation, personnel
protection and comfort, maintaining process temperature, reducing
temperature variation and fluctuations, condensation and corrosion
prevention, fire protection, freezing protection, and reducing noise and
vibration.
7-80C The optimum thickness of insulation is the thickness that corresponds
to a minimum combined cost of insulation and heat lost. The cost of
insulation increases roughly linearly with thickness while the cost of heat
lost decreases exponentially. The total cost, which is the sum of the two,
decreases first, reaches a minimum, and then increases. The thickness that
corresponds to the minimum total cost is the optimum thickness of
insulation, and this is the recommended thickness of insulation to be
installed.
7-81 The thickness of flat R-8 insulation in SI units is to be determined
when the thermal conductivity of the material is known.
Assumptions Thermal properties are constant.
Properties The thermal conductivity of the insulating material is given to
be k = 0.04 W/m(°C.
Analysis The thickness of flat R-8 insulation (in m2.(C/W) is determined
from the definition of R-value to be
7-82E The thickness of flat R-20 insulation in English units is to be
determined when the thermal conductivity of the material is known.
Assumptions Thermal properties are constant.
Properties The thermal conductivity of the insulating material is given to
be k = 0.02 Btu/h(ft(°F.
Analysis The thickness of flat R-20 insulation (in h(ft2(°F/Btu) is
determined from the definition of R-value to be
7-83 A steam pipe is to be covered with enough insulation to reduce the
exposed surface temperature to 30(C . The thickness of insulation that
needs to be installed is to be determined.
Assumptions 1 Heat transfer is steady since there is no indication of any
change with time. 2 Heat transfer is one-dimensional since there is
thermal symmetry about the centerline and no variation in the axial
direction. 3 Thermal properties are constant. 4 The thermal contact
resistance at the interface is negligible.
Properties The thermal conductivities are given to be k = 52 W/m(°C for
cast iron pipe and k = 0.038 W/m(°C for fiberglass insulation.
Analysis The thermal resistance network for this problem involves 4
resistances in series. The inner radius of the pipe is r1 = 2.0 cm and the
outer radius of the pipe and thus the inner radius of insulation is r2 =
2.3 cm. Letting r3 represent the outer radius of insulation, the areas of
the surfaces exposed to convection for a L = 1 m long section of the pipe
become
Then the individual thermal resistances are determined to be
Noting that all resistances are in series, the total resistance is
Then the steady rate of heat loss from the steam becomes
Noting that the outer surface temperature of insulation is specified to be
30(C, the rate of heat loss can also be expressed as
Setting the two relations above equal to each other and solving for r3
gives r3 = 0.0362 m. Then the minimum thickness of fiberglass insulation
required is
t = r3 - r2 = 0.0362 - 0.0230 = 0.0132 m = 1.32 cm
Therefore, insulating the pipe with at least 1.32 cm thick fiberglass
insulation will ensure that the outer surface temperature of the pipe will
be at 30(C or below.
7-84 "!PROBLEM 7-84"
"GIVEN"
T_i=110 "[C]"
T_o=22 "[C]"
k_pipe=52 "[W/m-C]"
r_1=0.02 "[m]"
t_pipe=0.003 "[m]"
"T_s_max=30 [C], parameter to be varied"
h_i=80 "[W/m^2-C]"
h_o=22 "[W/m^2-C]"
k_ins=0.038 "[W/m-C]"
"ANALYSIS"
L=1 "[m], 1 m long section of the pipe is considered"
A_i=2*pi*r_1*L
A_o=2*pi*r_3*L
r_3=r_2+t_ins*Convert(cm, m) "t_ins is in cm"
r_2=r_1+t_pipe
R_conv_i=1/(h_i*A_i)
R_pipe=ln(r_2/r_1)/(2*pi*k_pipe*L)
R_ins=ln(r_3/r_2)/(2*pi*k_ins*L)
R_conv_o=1/(h_o*A_o)
R_total=R_conv_i+R_pipe+R_ins+R_conv_o
Q_dot=(T_i-T_o)/R_total
Q_dot=(T_s_max-T_o)/R_conv_o
"Ts, max [C] "tins [cm] "
"24 "4.45 "
"26 "2.489 "
"28 "1.733 "
"30 "1.319 "
"32 "1.055 "
"34 "0.871 "
"36 "0.7342 "
"38 "0.6285 "
"40 "0.5441 "
"42 "0.4751 "
"44 "0.4176 "
"46 "0.3688 "
"48 "0.327 "
7-85 A cylindrical oven is to be insulated to reduce heat losses. The
optimum thickness of insulation and the amount of money saved per year are
to be determined.
Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist. 2 Heat transfer through
the insulation is one-dimensional. 3 Thermal conductivities are constant.
4 The thermal contact resistance at the interface is negligible. 5 The
surface temperature of the furnace and the heat transfer coefficient remain
constant. 6 The surfaces of the cylindrical oven can be treated as plain
surfaces since its diameter is greater than 1 m.
Properties The thermal conductivity of insulation is given to be k = 0.038
W/m(°C.
Analysis We treat the surfaces of this cylindrical furnace as plain
surfaces since its diameter is
greater than 1 m, and disregard the curvature effects. The exposed surface
area of the furnace is
The rate of heat loss from the furnace before the insulation is installed
is
Noting that the plant operates 52(80 = 4160 h/yr, the annual heat lost from
the furnace is
The efficiency of the furnace is given to be 78 percent. Therefore, to
generate this
much heat, the furnace must consume energy (in the form of natural gas) at
a rate of
since 1 therm = 105,500 kJ. Then the annual fuel cost of this furnace
before insulation becomes
We expect the surface temperature of the furnace to increase, and the heat
transfer coefficient to decrease somewhat when insulation is installed. We
assume these two effects to counteract each other. Then the rate of heat
loss for 1-cm thick insulation becomes
Also, the total amount of heat loss from the furnace per year and the
amount and cost of energy consumption of the furnace become
Cost savings = Energy cost w/o insulation - Energy cost
w/insulation = 12,157 - 1367 = $10,790/yr
The unit cost of insulation is given to be $10/m2 per cm thickness, plus
$30/m2 for labor. Then the total cost of insulation becomes
To determine the thickness of insulation whose cost is equal to annual
energy savings, we repeat the calculations above for 2, 3, . . . . 15 cm
thick insulations, and list the results in the table below.
" Insulation "Rate of heat "Cost of heat "Cost "Insulation"
"thickness "loss "lost "savings "cost $ "
" "W "$/yr "$/yr " "
"0 cm "133,600 "12,157 "0 "0 "
"1 cm "15,021 "1367 "10,790 "2828 "
"5 cm "3301 "300 "11,850 "3535 "
"10 cm "1671 "152 "12,005 "9189 "
"11 cm "1521 "138 "12,019 "9897 "
"12 cm " 1396 "127 "12,030 "10,604 "
"13 cm " 1289 "117 "12,040 "11,310 "
"14 cm " 1198 "109 "12,048 "12,017 "
"15 cm " 1119 "102 "12,055 "12,724 "
Therefore, the thickest insulation that will pay for itself in one year is
the one whose thickness is 14 cm.
7-86 A cylindrical oven is to be insulated to reduce heat losses. The
optimum thickness of insulation and the amount of money saved per year are
to be determined.
Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist. 2 Heat transfer through
the insulation is one-dimensional. 3 Thermal conductivities are constant.
4 The thermal contact resistance at the interface is negligible. 5 The
surface temperature of the furnace and the heat transfer coefficient remain
constant. 6 The surfaces of the cylindrical oven can be treated as plain
surfaces since its diameter is greater than 1 m.
Properties The thermal conductivity of insulation is given to be k = 0.038
W/m(°C.
Analysis We treat the surfaces of this cylindrical furnace as plain
surfaces since its diameter is
greater than 1 m, and disregard the curvature effects. The exposed surface
area of the furnace is
The rate of heat loss from the furnace before the insulation is installed
is
Noting that the plant operates 52(80 = 4160 h/yr, the annual heat lost from
the furnace is
The efficiency of the furnace is given to be 78 percent. Therefore, to
generate this
much heat, the furnace must consume energy (in the form of natural gas) at
a rate of
since 1 therm = 105,500 kJ. Then the annual fuel cost of this furnace
before insulation becomes
We expect the surface temperature of the furnace to increase, and the heat
transfer coefficient to decrease somewhat when insulation is installed. We
assume these two effects to counteract each other. Then the rate of heat
loss for 1-cm thick insulation becomes
Also, the total amount of heat loss from the furnace per year and the
amount and cost of energy consumption of the furnace become
Cost savings = Energy cost w/o insulation - Energy cost
w/insulation = 9263 - 1041 = $8222/yr
The unit cost of insulation is given to be $10/m2 per cm thickness, plus
$30/m2 for labor. Then the total cost of insulation becomes
To determine the thickness of insulation whose cost is equal to annual
energy savings, we repeat the calculations above for 2, 3, . . . . 15 cm
thick insulations, and list the results in the table below.
" Insulation "Rate of heat "Cost of heat "Cost "Insulation"
"Thickness "loss "lost "savings "cost $ "
" "W "$/yr "$/yr " "
"0 cm "101,794 "9263 "0 "0 "
"1 cm "11,445 "1041 "8222 "2828 "
"5 cm " 2515 "228 "9035 "3535 "
"9 cm " 1413 "129 "9134 "8483 "
"10 cm "1273 "116 "9147 "9189 "
"11 cm "1159 "105 "9158 "9897 "
"12 cm " 1064 "97 "9166 "10,604 "
Therefore, the thickest insulation that will pay for itself in one year is
the one whose thickness is 9 cm. The 10-cm thick insulation will come very
close to paying for itself in one year.
7-87E Steam is flowing through an insulated steel pipe, and it is
proposed to add another 1-in thick layer of fiberglass insulation on top of
the existing one to reduce the heat losses further and to save energy and
money. It is to be determined if the new insulation will pay for itself
within 2 years.
Assumptions 1 Heat transfer is steady since there is no indication of any
change with time. 2 Heat transfer is one-dimensional since there is
thermal symmetry about the centerline and no variation in the axial
direction. 3 Thermal properties are constant. 4 The heat transfer
coefficients remain constant. 5 The thermal contact resistance at the
interface is negligible.
Properties The thermal conductivities are given to be k = 8.7 Btu/h(ft(°F
for steel pipe and k = 0.020 Btu/h(ft(°F for fiberglass insulation.
Analysis The inner radius of the pipe is r1 = 1.75 in, the outer radius of
the pipe is r2 = 2 in, and the outer radii of the existing and proposed
insulation layers are r3 = 3 in and 4 in, respectively. Considering a unit
pipe length of L = 1 ft, the individual thermal resistances are determined
to be
Current Case:
Then the steady rate of heat loss from the steam becomes
Proposed Case:
Then the steady rate of heat loss from the steam becomes
Therefore, the amount of energy and money saved by the additional
insulation per year are
or $7.01 per 2 years, which is barely more than the $7.0 minimum required.
But the criteria is satisfied, and the proposed additional insulation is
justified.
7-88 The plumbing system of a plant involves some section of a plastic
pipe exposed to the ambient air. The pipe is to be insulated with adequate
fiber glass insulation to prevent freezing of water in the pipe. The
thickness of insulation that will protect the water from freezing under
worst conditions is to be determined.
Assumptions 1 Heat transfer is transient, but can be treated as steady at
average conditions. 2 Heat transfer is one-dimensional since there is
thermal symmetry about the centerline and no variation in the axial
direction. 3 Thermal properties are constant. 4 The water in the pipe is
stationary, and its initial temperature is 15(C. 5 The thermal contact
resistance at the interface is negligible. 6 The convection resistance
inside the pipe is negligible.
Properties The thermal conductivities are given to be k = 0.16 W/m(°C for
plastic pipe and k = 0.035 W/m(°C for fiberglass insulation. The density
and specific heat of water are to be ( = 1000 kg/m3 and Cp = 4.18 kJ/kg.(C
(Table A-15).
Analysis The inner radius of the pipe is r1 = 3.0 cm and the outer radius
of the pipe and thus the inner radius of insulation is r2 = 3.3 cm. We let
r3 represent the outer radius of insulation. Considering a 1-m section of
the pipe, the amount of heat that must be transferred from the water as it
cools from 15 to 0(C is determined to be
Then the average rate of heat transfer during 60 h becomes
The individual thermal resistances are
Then the rate of average heat transfer from the water can be expressed as
Therefore, the minimum thickness of fiberglass needed to protect the pipe
from freezing is
t = r3 - r2 = 3.50 - 0.033 = 3.467 m
which is too large. Installing such a thick insulation is not practical,
however, and thus other freeze protection methods should be considered.
7-89 The plumbing system of a plant involves some section of a plastic pipe
exposed to the ambient air. The pipe is to be insulated with adequate fiber
glass insulation to prevent freezing of water in the pipe. The thickness of
insulation that will protect the water from freezing more than 20% under
worst conditions is to be determined.
Assumptions 1 Heat transfer is transient, but can be treated as steady at
average conditions. 2 Heat transfer is one-dimensional since there is
thermal symmetry about the centerline and no variation in the axial
direction. 3 Thermal properties are constant. 4 The water in the pipe is
stationary, and its initial temperature is 15(C. 5 The thermal contact
resistance at the interface is negligible. 6 The convection resistance
inside the pipe is negligible.
Properties The thermal conductivities are given to be k = 0.16 W/m(°C for
plastic pipe and k = 0.035 W/m(°C for fiberglass insulation. The density
and specific heat of water are to be ( = 1000 kg/m3 and Cp = 4.18 kJ/kg.(C
(Table A-15).
Analysis The inner radius of the pipe is r1 = 3.0 cm and the outer radius
of the pipe and thus the inner radius of insulation is r2 = 3.3 cm. We let
r3 represent the outer radius of insulation. The latent heat of freezing of
water is 33.7 kJ/kg. Considering a 1-m section of the pipe, the amount of
heat that must be transferred from the water as it cools from 15 to 0(C is
determined to be
Then the average rate of heat transfer during 60 h becomes
The individual thermal resistances are
Then the rate of average heat transfer from the water can be expressed as
Therefore, the minimum thickness of fiberglass needed to protect the pipe
from freezing is
t = r3 - r2 = 0.312 - 0.033 = 0.279 m
which is too large. Installing such a thick insulation is not practical,
however, and thus other freeze protection methods should be considered.
Review Problems
7-90 Wind is blowing parallel to the walls of a house. The rate of heat
loss from the wall is to be determined.
Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist. 2 The critical Reynolds
number is Recr = 5(105. 3 Radiation effects are negligible. 4 Air is an
ideal gas with constant properties. 5 The pressure of air is 1 atm.
Properties Assuming a film temperature of Tf = 10(C for the outdoors, the
properties of air are evaluated to be (Table A-15)
Analysis Air flows along 8-m side. The Reynolds number in this case is
which is greater than the critical Reynolds number. Thus we have combined
laminar and turbulent flow. Using the proper relation for Nusselt number,
heat transfer coefficient is determined to be
The thermal resistances are
Then the total thermal resistance and the heat transfer rate through the
wall are determined from
7-91 A car travels at a velocity of 60 km/h. The rate of heat transfer from
the bottom surface of the hot automotive engine block is to be determined
for two cases.
Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist. 2 The critical Reynolds
number is Recr = 5(105. 3 Air is an ideal gas with constant properties. 4
The pressure of air is 1 atm. 5 The flow is turbulent over the entire
surface because of the constant agitation of the engine block. 6 The bottom
surface of the engine is a flat surface.
Properties The properties of air at 1 atm and the film temperature of (Ts +
T()/2 = (75+5)/2 = 40(C are (Table A-15)
Analysis The Reynolds number is
which is less than the critical Reynolds number. But we will assume
turbulent flow because of the constant agitation of the engine block.
The heat loss by radiation is then determined from Stefan-Boltzman law to
be
Then the total rate of heat loss from the bottom surface of the engine
block becomes
The gunk will introduce an additional resistance to heat dissipation from
the engine. The total heat transfer rate in this case can be calculated
from
The decrease in the heat transfer rate is
1734-1668 = 66 W
7-92E A minivan is traveling at 60 mph. The rate of heat transfer to the
van is to be determined.
Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist. 2 The critical Reynolds
number is Recr = 5(105. 3 Radiation effects are negligible. 4 Air flow is
turbulent because of the intense vibrations involved. 5 Air is an ideal gas
with constant properties. 5 The pressure of air is 1 atm.
Properties Assuming a film temperature of Tf = 80(F, the properties of air
are evaluated to be (Table A-15E)
Analysis Air flows along 11 ft long side. The Reynolds number in this case
is
which is greater than the critical Reynolds number. The air flow is assumed
to be entirely turbulent because of the intense vibrations involved. Then
the Nusselt number and the heat transfer coefficient are determined to be
The thermal resistances are
Then the total thermal resistance and the heat transfer rate into the
minivan are determined to be
7-93 Wind is blowing parallel to the walls of a house with windows. The
rate of heat loss through the window is to be determined.
Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist. 2 The critical Reynolds
number is Recr = 5(105. 3 Radiation effects are negligible. 4 Air flow is
turbulent because of the intense vibrations involved. 5 The minivan is
modeled as a rectangular box. 6 Air is an ideal gas with constant
properties. 6 The pressure of air is 1 atm.
Properties Assuming a film temperature of 5(C, the properties of air at 1
atm and this temperature are evaluated to be (Table A-15)
Analysis Air flows along 1.2 m side. The Reynolds number in this case is
which is greater than the critical Reynolds number. Thus we have combined
laminar and turbulent flow. Using the proper relation for Nusselt number,
heat transfer coefficient is determined to be
The thermal resistances are
Then the total thermal resistance and the heat transfer rate through the 3
windows become
7-94 A fan is blowing air over the entire body of a person. The average
temperature of the outer surface of the person is to be determined.
Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist. 2 Air is an ideal gas with
constant properties. 3 The pressure of air is 1 atm. 4 The average human
body can be treated as a 30-cm-diameter cylinder with an exposed surface
area of 1.7 m2.
Properties We assume the film temperature to be 35(C. The properties of air
at 1 atm and this temperature are (Table A-15)
Analysis The Reynolds number is
The proper relation for Nusselt number corresponding to this Reynolds
number is
Then
Considering that there is heat generation in that person's body at a rate
of 90 W and body gains heat by radiation from the surrounding surfaces, an
energy balance can be written as
Substituting values with proper units and then application of trial & error
method yields the average temperature of the outer surface of the person.
7-95 The heat generated by four transistors mounted on a thin vertical
plate is dissipated by air blown over the plate on both surfaces. The
temperature of the aluminum plate is to be determined.
Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist. 2 The critical Reynolds
number is Recr = 5(105. 3 Radiation effects are negligible. 4 The entire
plate is nearly isothermal. 5 The exposed surface area of the transistor is
taken to be equal to its base area. 6 Air is an ideal gas with constant
properties. 7 The pressure of air is 1 atm.
Properties Assuming a film temperature of 40(C, the properties of air are
evaluated to be (Table A-15)
Analysis The Reynolds number in this case is
which is smaller than the critical Reynolds number. Thus we have laminar
flow. Using the proper relation for Nusselt number, heat transfer
coefficient is determined to be
The temperature of aluminum plate then becomes
Discussion In reality, the heat transfer coefficient will be higher since
the transistors will cause turbulence in the air.
7-96 A spherical tank used to store iced water is subjected to winds. The
rate of heat transfer to the iced water and the amount of ice that melts
during a 24-h period are to be determined.
Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist. 2 Thermal resistance of
the tank is negligible. 3 Radiation effects are negligible. 4 Air is an
ideal gas with constant properties. 5 The pressure of air is 1 atm.
Properties The properties of air at 1 atm pressure and the free stream
temperature of 30(C are (Table A-15)
Analysis (a) The Reynolds number is
The Nusselt number corresponding to this Reynolds number is determined from
and
The rate of heat transfer to the iced water is
(b) The amount of heat transfer during a 24-hour period is
Then the amount of ice that melts during this period becomes
7-97 A spherical tank used to store iced water is subjected to winds. The
rate of heat transfer to the iced water and the amount of ice that melts
during a 24-h period are to be determined.
Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist. 2 Air is an ideal gas with
constant properties. 7 The pressure of air is 1 atm.
Properties The properties of air at 1 atm pressure and the free stream
temperature of 30(C are (Table A-15)
" " "
Analysis (a) The Reynolds number is
The Nusselt number corresponding to this Reynolds number is determined from
and
In steady operation, heat transfer through the tank by conduction is equal
to the heat transfer from the outer surface of the tank by convection and
radiation. Therefore,
where
Substituting,
whose solution is
(b) The amount of heat transfer during a 24-hour period is
Then the amount of ice that melts during this period becomes
7-98E A cylindrical transistor mounted on a circuit board is cooled by air
flowing over it. The maximum power rating of the transistor is to be
determined.
Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist. 2 Radiation effects are
negligible. 3 Air is an ideal gas with constant properties. 4 The pressure
of air is 1 atm.
Properties The properties of air at 1 atm and the film temperature of
are (Table A-15)
Analysis The Reynolds number is
The Nusselt number corresponding to this Reynolds number is
and
Then the amount of power this transistor can dissipate safely becomes
-----------------------
Person, Ts
90 W
( = 0.9
T(1 = 22(C
WINDOW
L = 1.2 m
Air
V( = 60 km/h
T(2 = -2(C
T(2
T(1
Ro
Rinsulation
Ri
Minivan
L = 11 ft
Air
V( = 60 mph
T( = 50(F
Ts = 10(C
Ts = 75(C
( = 0.92
Air
V( = 60 km/h
T( = 5(C
Engine block
L = 0.7 m
T(2
T(1
Ro
Rinsulation
Ri
T(1 = 22(C
T3
T1 T2
Rpipe
To
Ro
Rinsulation
Ti
Ri ( 0
T3
T1 T2
Rpipe
To
Ro
Rinsulation
Ti
Ri ( 0
T3
T1 T2
Rpipe
To
Ro
Rinsulation
Ti
Ri
Ts
Rinsulation
T(
Ro
Ts
Rinsulation
T(
Ro
D = 0.3 m
T3
V( = 5 m/s
T( = 32(C
WALL
L = 8 m
Air
V( = 50 km/h
T(2 = 4(C
T1 T2
Rpipe
To
Ro
Rinsulation
Ti
Ri
L
R-20
L
R-8
V( = 250 m/min
T( = 20(C
Ts
12 W
L= 22 cm
1 cm
Iced water
Di = 3 m
0(C
Ts = 0(C
V( = 25 km/h
T( = 30(C
1 cm
Iced water
Di = 3 m
0(C
Ts, out
V( = 25 km/h
T( = 30(C
0(C
Air
500 ft/min
120(F
Power
transistor
D = 0.22 in